Python Bridge

Python is the most popular interactive script language, created by Guido van Rossum and first released in 1991. Spaces, tabs and line feeds matter in Python code, and enforce a clean code style with correct indentations. Python is interpreted and thus slow compared to compiled languages like C. So it is not suited for high-speed strategies, but its strengths are a simple and modern syntax, and access to all sorts of libraries for machine learning and data analysis. Many tasks can be solved in the same way in lite-C as well as in Python, but Python often has already a dedicated command implemented or library available for that.

There are two methods to run Python code from Zorro. The Python bridge allows directly calling Python functions from a Zorro script and using their results for trade signals. A script can start a Python session, send price data or indicator values to it, and use Python machine learning packages for training and prediction. Alternatively, Zorro can directly call the Python interpreter pythonw.exe and exchange data via files. This method is slower, but works even when the used Python library does not support embedded Python. Examples for both methods are can be found below.

Installation and test

Here's the procedure (Zorro 2.5 or above)

Make sure that any needed Python module is installed to your Python folder (don't use the pip --user option). Afterwards the module can be mounted with the import statement. Please read the remarks about issues with particular modules.

The following functions are available via Python bridge for sending data to Python, performing computations, and receiving data back:

pyStart(string Filename, int Mode): int

Start a new Python session, and optionally load and run Python code from the file Filename. This function must be called before any Python computations can be done. It returns 0 when the Python session could not be started, otherwise nonzero. The Python session will stay alive until the end of the Zorro session.  



Name of a .py file in the Strategy folder containing all needed Python functions and variables (f.i. ""), or 0 for not loading a file.


A combination of the following flags, otherwise 0.
1 - log Python output and errors to the files PyOut.txt and PyError.txt in the Log folder
2 - don't release Python variables and modules at session end. Required for some modules (see remarks).

pyX(string Code): int

Execute Python Code. It can contain an expression, like "a = b + c", a function call, a function definition, an import, or any other valid Python statement. If the code cannot be excuted, 0 is returned, otherwise nonzero.


Code Python code to be executed. Separate lines with \n and mind whitespace indentations.

pySet(string Name, int n)

pySet(string Name, var d)

pySet(string Name, string s)

pySet(string Name, var *v, int elements)

Store an int, var, string, series or double array in the Python variable Name. Since the target type depends on the variable type, make sure to use the correct type. When storing constants, typecast them with (int) or (var) if in doubt. 


Name Name of the Python variable to be set (see remarks).
i int value to be assigned to a Python integer variable.
d var value to be assigned to a Python floating point variable.
s char* string to be assigned to a Python Unicode string variable.
v Pointer of the var array or series to be assigned to a Python list.
elements Length of the vector or series. Make sure to give the exact number of elements.

pyInt(string Name): int

pyVar(string Name): var

pyStr(string Name): string

pyVec(string Name, var *v, int elements)

Return the Python variable with the given Name as an int, double, string, or array. Errors, such as wrong variable names or types, return -1.


Name Name of a Python variable, previously defined by pyX or pySet (see remarks).
v Pointer of the var array to be filled with the Python list.
elements Number of elements of the vector; must be identical in the Python code and in the lite-C script.



// run some Python code
function main()
  if(!pyStart(0,1)) {
    printf("Error - Python won't start!");

  var Vec[5] = { 0,1,2,3,4 };
  pyX("for i in range(5): PyVec[i] *= 10\n");

  int i;
  printf("\nReturned: ");
  for(i=0; i<5; i++) printf("%.0f ",Vec[i]);

// test a function
  pyX("def PySum(V):\n Sum = 0.0\n for X in V:\n Sum += X\n return Sum\n\n");
  pyX("Result = PySum(PyVec)");
  printf("\nSum: %.0f",pyVar("Result"));
// run a Python function
function main()
  if(!pyStart("",1)) {
    printf("Error - Python script won't start!");
  pyX("Result = MyPythonFunction()");
  var Result = pyVar("Result");
  printf("\nResult: %.2f",Result);
// trade by a Python signal
function run()
      return quit("Error - Python script won't start!");

  pySet("Price",priceC()); // send current price to Python
  pyX("Signal = PythonTradeAlgorithm(Price)");
  int Signal = pyInt("Signal"); // received trade signal
  if(Signal > 0)
  else if(Signal < 0)
// start Python interpreter and process a data array

// Python side: --------------------------------
#read signals from file
Signals = []
with open("Data/In.txt","r") as File:
  for Line in File:
# process signals and write result back to file
Processed = processMyData(Signals)
with open("Data/Out.txt","w") as File:
  for Line in Processed:

// Zorro side: --------------------------------
/ send signals to file 
string Content = zalloc(NumSignals*32);
for(i=0; i<NumSignals; i++)
// call the Python interpreter 
string PythonPath = "MyPythonPath\\Pythonw";
// get returned signals
Signals[0] = atof(strtok(Content,"\n"));
for(i=1; i<NumSignals; i++)
  Signals[i] = atof(strtok(0,"\n"));

See also:

Code conversion, R Bridge, Python cheat sheet

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