value |
Optional data value of the series. The series is initially
filled with this value, otherwise with 0. |

length |
Optional number of elements of the series; must not change once set. When omitted or 0, the series gets the length of LookBack. A negative number allocates a static series
that can be shifted by script with the shift
function. |

- Series correspond to serial variables in EasyLanguage™. The
**n**-th element of a series is accessed by adding a**[n]**to the series name, where**n**is a positive integer number. For instance,**myseries[0]**is the most recent element,**myseries[1]**is the element of one time frame ago, and so on.**n**must always be positive and smaller than the series length. - Dynamic series are
normally shifted by the
**series**call at the end of any bar or time frame when the NOSHIFT flag is not set. The**[0]**element is then moved to the**[1]**element, the**[1]**element to the**[2]**element and so on. The current**value**becomes the new**[0]**element. Due to this mechanism, the series contains its elements in reverse chronological order with the most recent element at the start. For synchronizing series to external events or to longer time frames, either set the TimeFrame variable accordingly before the**series()**call, and set it back afterwards. The element**[n]**then corresponds to the**n**th event or time frame in the past. - Static series (defined with a negative
**length**) are not automatically shifted, but can be shifted by script with the shift function. Script-shifted static series can be used for storing arbitrary per-asset or per-algo variables, for excluding out-of-markte time periods from indicators, or for shifting series by arriving price ticks in the tick function. Not shifted static series can store additional asset-dependent variables. Static series are filled with**value**only in the initial run; afterwards**value**is ignored. Usage examples can be found in the**SpecialBars**script or in the SAR code in**indicators.c**. - For offsetting a series into the past, add an offset
**+n**. This creates a pointer onto the**n**-th element of the series. For instance,**(myseries+1)**is**myseries**at 1 bar offset into the past, excluding the last element**myseries[0]**. This allows to access series elements in different ways; for instance,**myseries[3]**is the same as**(myseries+2)[1]**and the same as**(myseries+3)[0]**. As the offset**+n**lets the series begin at the**n**th element, it reduces the available length of the series by**n**. When calling an indicator with a series with an offset, make sure that LookBack is always higher than the required lookback period of the function plus the unstable period plus the highest possible offset of the series. - For adding or subtracting two series, create a series of the sum or difference of the recent elements, f.i.
**vars Sums = series(Data1[0] + Data2[0]);**. - Some functions expect a single value, other functions expect a series as parameter. When a function expects a single value from a series, use
**myseries[n]**. When the function expects a whole series, use**myseries**or**myseries+n**. - If a series changes slowly, like an EMA, fill it initially with an
average
**value**. This prevents initialization effects when an accumulative indicator needs many bars to 'creep' from 0 to its first value. - A value returned by a function can be
converted to a series by using it as the first parameter to the series function. For instance,
**series(price())**is a series that contains the**price**value;**series(SMA(series(priceClose()),30))**is a series containing the 30-bar Simple Moving Average of the**Close**value. - The rev function
reverses a series so that the
**[0]**element is the earliest. - The
**length**parameter should not exceed the LookBack period, at least not when the series affects trading. Otherwise the script would trade differently in the fist time after starting.. - !! Since the
LookBack value is normally only known
after the INITRUN, series are allocated in the
FIRSTRUN. During the
**INITRUN**they are set to a temporary pointer and filled with the initial value. This temporary content is overwritten by the series allocation in the FIRSTRUN. - !! An internal counter determines the pointer to be returned by a
**series()**call. For keeping the counter in sync with the**series**calls, they are restricted to the run function or a function that is called from the**run**function, and must be always in the same order. Therefore**series**calls cannot be skipped by if or other conditions that change from bar to bar (see example below). If the content of a series shall depend on**if**conditions, set the**[0]**element dependent on**if**. These restrictions also apply to all functions that internally create**series**, such as some indicator or signal processing functions. Zorro detects wrong series calls and will display an error message in this case. - Every series requires memory and CPU resources. Therefore do not create more or longer series than needed. The longer a series, the more memory is required and the slower is script execution due to internal shifting the series on every time frame.
- If you need to create extremely many series and get an Error 041, increase TradesPerBar. This affects not only the maximum number of trades, but also the maximum number of series.
- If you need to access the same series from several
functions, declare a global
**vars**, and set it with a**series**call in the**run**function.

// create a series with the high-low price differencesvars PriceRange = series(priceHigh()-priceLow());// compare the current range with the range from 3 bars agoif(PriceRange[0] > PriceRange[3]) ...// calculate a 20-bar Simple Moving Average containing the price differences from 5 bars agovar Average5 = SMA(PriceRange+5,20);// wrong use of conditional seriesif(priceClose() > Threshold) { vars X = series(priceClose());// error message!vars Y = series(SMA(X,100));// error message!... }// correct use of conditional seriesvars X = series(), Y = series(); if(priceClose() > Threshold) { X[0] = priceClose();// ok!Y[0] = SMA(X,100); ... }// using arrays of seriesvars MySeriesArray[3];// declars an array of series... for(i=0; i<3; i++) MySeriesArray[i] = series(); ... (MySeriesArray[0])[0] = 123;// access the first element of the first series. Mind the parentheses!